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Samurai ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die Bezeichnung Bushi üblich. Heute wird Samurai einzig für den Kriegeradel jener Zeit verwendet und nicht. Samurai (jap. 侍 oder seltener 士) ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die. Später gab man ihm das Kommando über Samurai, einen großen Teil der kaiserlichen Armee. Als ein Führer der kaiserlichen Truppen im Boshin-Krieg, in​. Wie waren sie wirklich, die japanischen Samurai? Etwa so, wie in der fünfteiligen Fernsehserie Shogun aus den er Jahren: Tapfere und tugendhafte. artelino - Die japanische Samurai Klasse. Die japanische Samurai Kaste entstand im Jahrhundert, als zwei mächtige japanische Clans heftige Kriege​.

Samurai

artelino - Die japanische Samurai Klasse. Die japanische Samurai Kaste entstand im Jahrhundert, als zwei mächtige japanische Clans heftige Kriege​. Many translated example sentences containing "Samurai" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Samurai ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die Bezeichnung Bushi üblich. Heute wird Samurai einzig für den Kriegeradel jener Zeit verwendet und nicht. Samurai on Black Horse. Ein häufiger Grund für Hara-kiri war eine verlorene Schlacht. Der Ehrenkodex opinion Four Brothers about Bushi-do Weg des Kriegersder Elemente aus Shintoismus, Buddhismus und Konfuzianismus Aquaman Watch, wurde zur Maxime, die ökonomischen und moralischen Verfallserscheinungen entgegenwirken sollte. Samurai and Dog. Und die einfachen Leute in den Provinzen weitab der Fact Or Faked, die wissen oft nicht, dass es überhaupt einen Tenno gibt. Geschrieben hat es ein Japaner — in visit web page Sprache. Ronin sind Samurai ohne einen Herren.

The term samurai was originally used to denote the aristocratic warriors bushi , but it came to apply to all the members of the warrior class that rose to power in the 12th century and dominated the Japanese government until the Meiji Restoration in Emerging from provincial warrior bands, the samurai of the Kamakura period — , with their military skills and deep pride in their stoicism , developed a disciplined culture distinct from the earlier quiet refinement of the imperial court.

Samurai lived an austere lifestyle, and the samurai culture produced many uniquely Japanese arts , such as the tea ceremony and flower arranging ikebana , that continue today.

The proper method for committing the act was to plunge a short sword into the left side of the abdomen , draw the blade laterally across to the right, and then turn it upward.

Emerging from provincial warrior bands, the samurai of the Kamakura period — , with their military skills and deep pride in their stoicism, developed a disciplined culture distinct from the earlier, quiet refinement of the imperial court.

During the Muromachi period — under the growing influence of Zen Buddhism , the samurai culture produced many such uniquely Japanese arts as the tea ceremony and flower arranging that continue today.

In the early part of the Tokugawa period — , the samurai, who accounted for less than 10 percent of the population, were made a closed caste as part of a larger effort to freeze the social order and stabilize society.

Although still allowed to wear the two swords emblematic of their social position, most samurai were forced to become civil bureaucrats or take up some trade during the years of peace that prevailed under the Tokugawa shogunate military dictatorship.

Moreover, the rise of the cities and the expansion of a merchant economy during early 18th-century Japan led to the flowering of a vibrant urban culture , which eventually superseded the austere life-style of the samurai.

At the same time, the economic position of the samurai, who lived primarily on fixed stipends, was being eroded.

In spite of their high social rank, a growing number of samurai families suffered impoverishment by the end of the Tokugawa period.

The strain of defeating two Mongol invasions at the end of the 13th century weakened the Kamakura Shogunate, which fell to a rebellion led by Ashikaga Takauji.

The Ashikaga Shogunate, centered in Kyoto, began around For the next two centuries, Japan was in a near-constant state of conflict between its feuding territorial clans.

After the particularly divisive Onin War of , the Ashikaga shoguns ceased to be effective, and feudal Japan lacked a strong central authority; local lords and their samurai stepped in to a greater extent to maintain law and order.

Despite the political unrest, this period—known as the Muromachi after the district of that name in Kyoto—saw considerable economic expansion in Japan.

It was also a golden age for Japanese art, as the samurai culture came under the growing influence of Zen Buddhism. In addition to such now-famous Japanese art forms as the tea ceremony, rock gardens and flower arranging, theater and painting also flourished during the Muromachi period.

This period ushered in a year-long stretch of peace and prosperity in Japan, and for the first time the samurai took on the responsibility of governing through civil means rather than through military force.

This relatively conservative faith, with its emphasis on loyalty and duty, eclipsed Buddhism during the Tokugawa period as the dominant religion of the samurai.

It was during this period that the principles of bushido emerged as a general code of conduct for Japanese people in general.

Though bushido varied under the influences of Buddhist and Confucian thought, its warrior spirit remained constant, including an emphasis on military skills and fearlessness in the face of an enemy.

In a peaceful Japan, many samurai were forced to become bureaucrats or take up some type of trade, even as they preserved their conception of themselves as fighting men.

In , the right to carry swords was restricted only to samurai, which created an even greater separation between them and the farmer-peasant class.

The material well-being of many samurai actually declined during the Tokugawa Shogunate, however. Samurai had traditionally made their living on a fixed stipend from landowners; as these stipends declined, many lower-level samurai were frustrated by their inability to improve their situation.

In the midth century, the stability of the Tokugawa regime was undermined by a combination of factors, including peasant unrest due to famine and poverty.

The incursion of Western powers into Japan—and especially the arrival in of Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.

Navy, on a mission to get Japan to open its doors to international trade—proved to be the final straw. The controversial decision to open the country to Western commerce and investment helped encourage resistance to the shogunate among conservative forces in Japan, including many samurai, who began calling for a restoration of the power of the emperor.

Feudalism was officially abolished in ; five years later, the wearing of swords was forbidden to anyone except members of the national armed forces, and all samurai stipends were converted into government bonds, often at significant financial loss.

Detta ledde till en rad samurajuppror av vilket det största och sista var Satsumaupproret Det fanns även kvinnliga samurajer i det feodala Japan.

Den största skymf som kunde visas mot en samuraj var att skära av honom hans chonmange. Även om samurajer som klass inte längre finns kvar, lever samurajen kvar som en viktig symbol för det historiska Japan och för den klassiska krigarmoralen.

För den svenska serietidningen Samurai, se Samurai. Kategorier : Japanska adelstitlar Japans militärhistoria Japanska ord och uttryck.

The Ashikaga Shogunate, centered in Kyoto, began around For the next two centuries, Japan was in a near-constant state of conflict between its feuding territorial clans.

After the particularly divisive Onin War of , the Ashikaga shoguns ceased to be effective, and feudal Japan lacked a strong central authority; local lords and their samurai stepped in to a greater extent to maintain law and order.

Despite the political unrest, this period—known as the Muromachi after the district of that name in Kyoto—saw considerable economic expansion in Japan.

It was also a golden age for Japanese art, as the samurai culture came under the growing influence of Zen Buddhism. In addition to such now-famous Japanese art forms as the tea ceremony, rock gardens and flower arranging, theater and painting also flourished during the Muromachi period.

This period ushered in a year-long stretch of peace and prosperity in Japan, and for the first time the samurai took on the responsibility of governing through civil means rather than through military force.

This relatively conservative faith, with its emphasis on loyalty and duty, eclipsed Buddhism during the Tokugawa period as the dominant religion of the samurai.

It was during this period that the principles of bushido emerged as a general code of conduct for Japanese people in general.

Though bushido varied under the influences of Buddhist and Confucian thought, its warrior spirit remained constant, including an emphasis on military skills and fearlessness in the face of an enemy.

In a peaceful Japan, many samurai were forced to become bureaucrats or take up some type of trade, even as they preserved their conception of themselves as fighting men.

In , the right to carry swords was restricted only to samurai, which created an even greater separation between them and the farmer-peasant class.

The material well-being of many samurai actually declined during the Tokugawa Shogunate, however. Samurai had traditionally made their living on a fixed stipend from landowners; as these stipends declined, many lower-level samurai were frustrated by their inability to improve their situation.

In the midth century, the stability of the Tokugawa regime was undermined by a combination of factors, including peasant unrest due to famine and poverty.

The incursion of Western powers into Japan—and especially the arrival in of Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U. Navy, on a mission to get Japan to open its doors to international trade—proved to be the final straw.

The controversial decision to open the country to Western commerce and investment helped encourage resistance to the shogunate among conservative forces in Japan, including many samurai, who began calling for a restoration of the power of the emperor.

Feudalism was officially abolished in ; five years later, the wearing of swords was forbidden to anyone except members of the national armed forces, and all samurai stipends were converted into government bonds, often at significant financial loss.

The new Japanese national army quashed several samurai rebellions during the s, while some disgruntled samurai joined secret, ultra-nationalist societies, among them the notorious Black Dragon Society, whose object was to incite trouble in China so that the Japanese army would have an excuse to invade and preserve order.

Ironically—given the loss of their privileged status—the Meiji Restoration was actually engineered by members of the samurai class itself.

Three of the most influential leaders of the new Japan—Inoue Kaoru, Ito Hirobumi and Yamagata Aritomo—had studied with the famous samurai Yoshida Shouin, who was executed after a failed attempt to kill a Tokugawa official in It was former samurai who put Japan on the road to what it would become, and many would become leaders in all areas of modern Japanese society.

In the wake of the Meiji Restoration, Shinto was made the state religion of Japan unlike Confucianism, Buddhism and Christianity , it was wholly Japanese and bushido was adopted as its ruling moral code.

By , Japan had succeeded in building up its military strength—it signed an alliance with Britain in and defeated the Russians in Manchuria two years later—as well as its economy.

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Born to a minor warlord in Okazaki, Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu began his military training with the Imagawa family. He later allied himself with the powerful forces of Oda Nobunaga and then Toyotomi Hideyoshi, expanding his land holdings via a successful attack on the In late , over a period of six weeks, Imperial Japanese Army forces brutally murdered hundreds of thousands of people—including both soldiers and civilians—in the Chinese city of Nanking or Nanjing.

The horrific events are known as the Nanking Massacre or the Rape of Honour with them is placed above everything else. There are a great many poor among them, but poverty is not a disgrace to any one.

There is one thing among them of which I hardly know whether it is practised anywhere among Christians.

The nobles, however poor they may be, receive the same honour from the rest as if they were rich. First, a man whose profession is the use of arms should think and then act upon not only his own fame, but also that of his descendants.

He should not scandalize his name forever by holding his one and only life too dear One's main purpose in throwing away his life is to do so either for the sake of the Emperor or in some great undertaking of a military general.

It is that exactly that will be the great fame of one's descendants. In AD, Imagawa Sadayo wrote a letter of admonishment to his brother stressing the importance of duty to one's master.

Imagawa was admired for his balance of military and administrative skills during his lifetime, and his writings became widespread.

It is forbidden to forget the great debt of kindness one owes to his master and ancestors and thereby make light of the virtues of loyalty and filial piety It is forbidden that one should There is a primary need to distinguish loyalty from disloyalty and to establish rewards and punishments.

Similarly, the feudal lord Takeda Nobushige — stated: "In matters both great and small, one should not turn his back on his master's commands One should not ask for gifts or enfiefments from the master No matter how unreasonably the master may treat a man, he should not feel disgruntled An underling does not pass judgments on a superior.

Nobushige's brother Takeda Shingen — also made similar observations: "One who was born in the house of a warrior, regardless of his rank or class, first acquaints himself with a man of military feats and achievements in loyalty Everyone knows that if a man doesn't hold filial piety toward his own parents he would also neglect his duties toward his lord.

Such a neglect means a disloyalty toward humanity. Therefore such a man doesn't deserve to be called 'samurai'.

The feudal lord Asakura Yoshikage — wrote: "In the fief of the Asakura, one should not determine hereditary chief retainers.

A man should be assigned according to his ability and loyalty. By his civility, "all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies.

He commanded most of Japan's major clans during the invasion of Korea — In a handbook he addressed to "all samurai, regardless of rank", he told his followers that a warrior's only duty in life was to "grasp the long and the short swords and to die".

He also ordered his followers to put forth great effort in studying the military classics, especially those related to loyalty and filial piety.

He is best known for his quote: [28] "If a man does not investigate into the matter of Bushido daily, it will be difficult for him to die a brave and manly death.

Thus it is essential to engrave this business of the warrior into one's mind well. He stated that it was shameful for any man to have not risked his life at least once in the line of duty, regardless of his rank.

Nabeshima's sayings would be passed down to his son and grandson and would become the basis for Tsunetomo Yamamoto 's Hagakure.

He is best known for his saying "The way of the Samurai is in desperateness. Ten men or more cannot kill such a man. Torii Mototada — was a feudal lord in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

On the eve of the battle of Sekigahara , he volunteered to remain behind in the doomed Fushimi Castle while his lord advanced to the east.

Torii and Tokugawa both agreed that the castle was indefensible. In an act of loyalty to his lord, Torii chose to remain behind, pledging that he and his men would fight to the finish.

As was custom, Torii vowed that he would not be taken alive. In a dramatic last stand, the garrison of 2, men held out against overwhelming odds for ten days against the massive army of Ishida Mitsunari's 40, warriors.

In a moving last statement to his son Tadamasa, he wrote: [31]. It goes without saying that to sacrifice one's life for the sake of his master is an unchanging principle.

That I should be able to go ahead of all the other warriors of this country and lay down my life for the sake of my master's benevolence is an honor to my family and has been my most fervent desire for many years.

It is said that both men cried when they parted ways, because they knew they would never see each other again. Torii's father and grandfather had served the Tokugawa before him and his own brother had already been killed in battle.

Torii's actions changed the course of Japanese history. Ieyasu Tokugawa would successfully raise an army and win at Sekigahara.

The translator of Hagakure , William Scott Wilson observed examples of warrior emphasis on death in clans other than Yamamoto's: "he Takeda Shingen was a strict disciplinarian as a warrior, and there is an exemplary story in the Hagakure relating his execution of two brawlers, not because they had fought, but because they had not fought to the death".

The rival of Takeda Shingen — was Uesugi Kenshin — , a legendary Sengoku warlord well-versed in the Chinese military classics and who advocated the "way of the warrior as death".

Japanese historian Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki describes Uesugi's beliefs as: "Those who are reluctant to give up their lives and embrace death are not true warriors Go to the battlefield firmly confident of victory, and you will come home with no wounds whatever.

Engage in combat fully determined to die and you will be alive; wish to survive in the battle and you will surely meet death.

When you leave the house determined not to see it again you will come home safely; when you have any thought of returning you will not return.

You may not be in the wrong to think that the world is always subject to change, but the warrior must not entertain this way of thinking, for his fate is always determined.

Families such as the Imagawa were influential in the development of warrior ethics and were widely quoted by other lords during their lifetime.

Historian H. Paul Varley notes the description of Japan given by Jesuit leader St. Francis Xavier — : "There is no nation in the world which fears death less.

He also observed: "The Japanese are much braver and more warlike than the people of China, Korea, Ternate and all of the other nations around the Philippines.

In December , Francis was in Malacca Malaysia waiting to return to Goa India when he met a low-ranked samurai named Anjiro possibly spelled "Yajiro".

Anjiro was not an intellectual, but he impressed Xavier because he took careful notes of everything he said in church. Xavier made the decision to go to Japan in part because this low-ranking samurai convinced him in Portuguese that the Japanese people were highly educated and eager to learn.

They were hard workers and respectful of authority. In their laws and customs they were led by reason, and, should the Christian faith convince them of its truth, they would accept it en masse.

By the 12th century, upper-class samurai were highly literate due to the general introduction of Confucianism from China during the 7th to 9th centuries and in response to their perceived need to deal with the imperial court, who had a monopoly on culture and literacy for most of the Heian period.

As a result, they aspired to the more cultured abilities of the nobility. Examples such as Taira Tadanori a samurai who appears in the Heike Monogatari demonstrate that warriors idealized the arts and aspired to become skilled in them.

Tadanori was famous for his skill with the pen and the sword or the "bun and the bu", the harmony of fighting and learning.

By the time of the Edo period, Japan had a higher literacy comparable to that in central Europe. The number of men who actually achieved the ideal and lived their lives by it was high.

The Heike Monogatari makes reference to the educated poet-swordsman ideal in its mention of Taira no Tadanori's death: [39]. In his book " Ideals of the Samurai " translator William Scott Wilson states: "The warriors in the Heike Monogatari served as models for the educated warriors of later generations, and the ideals depicted by them were not assumed to be beyond reach.

Rather, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms.

With the Heike Monogatari, the image of the Japanese warrior in literature came to its full maturity. Plenty of warrior writings document this ideal from the 13th century onward.

Most warriors aspired to or followed this ideal otherwise there would have been no cohesion in the samurai armies.

As aristocrats for centuries, samurai developed their own cultures that influenced Japanese culture as a whole.

The culture associated with the samurai such as the tea ceremony , monochrome ink painting, rock gardens and poetry was adopted by warrior patrons throughout the centuries — These practices were adapted from the Chinese arts.

Zen monks introduced them to Japan and they were allowed to flourish due to the interest of powerful warrior elites. Another Ashikaga patron of the arts was Yoshimasa.

His cultural advisor, the Zen monk Zeami, introduced the tea ceremony to him. Previously, tea had been used primarily for Buddhist monks to stay awake during meditation.

In general, samurai, aristocrats, and priests had a very high literacy rate in kanji. Recent studies have shown that literacy in kanji among other groups in society was somewhat higher than previously understood.

For example, court documents, birth and death records and marriage records from the Kamakura period, submitted by farmers, were prepared in Kanji.

Both the kanji literacy rate and skills in math improved toward the end of Kamakura period. Some samurai had buke bunko , or "warrior library", a personal library that held texts on strategy, the science of warfare, and other documents that would have proved useful during the warring era of feudal Japan.

One such library held 20, volumes. The upper class had Kuge bunko , or "family libraries", that held classics, Buddhist sacred texts, and family histories, as well as genealogical records.

Literacy was generally high among the warriors and the common classes as well. The feudal lord Asakura Norikage — AD noted the great loyalty given to his father, due to his polite letters, not just to fellow samurai, but also to the farmers and townspeople:.

There were to Lord Eirin's character many high points difficult to measure, but according to the elders the foremost of these was the way he governed the province by his civility.

It goes without saying that he acted this way toward those in the samurai class, but he was also polite in writing letters to the farmers and townspeople, and even in addressing these letters he was gracious beyond normal practice.

In this way, all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. In a letter dated 29 January , St Francis Xavier observed the ease of which the Japanese understood prayers due to the high level of literacy in Japan at that time:.

There are two kinds of writing in Japan, one used by men and the other by women; and for the most part both men and women, especially of the nobility and the commercial class, have a literary education.

The bonzes, or bonzesses, in their monasteries teach letters to the girls and boys, though rich and noble persons entrust the education of their children to private tutors.

Most of them can read, and this is a great help to them for the easy understanding of our usual prayers and the chief points of our holy religion.

In a letter to Father Ignatius Loyola at Rome , Xavier further noted the education of the upper classes:. The Nobles send their sons to monasteries to be educated as soon as they are 8 years old, and they remain there until they are 19 or 20, learning reading, writing and religion; as soon as they come out, they marry and apply themselves to politics.

They are discreet, magnanimous and lovers of virtue and letters, honouring learned men very much.

In a letter dated 11 November , Xavier described a multi-tiered educational system in Japan consisting of "universities", "colleges", "academies" and hundreds of monasteries that served as a principal center for learning by the populace:.

But now we must give you an account of our stay at Cagoxima. We put into that port because the wind was adverse to our sailing to Meaco, which is the largest city in Japan, and most famous as the residence of the King and the Princes.

It is said that after four months are passed the favourable season for a voyage to Meaco will return, and then with the good help of God we shall sail thither.

The distance from Cagoxima is three hundred leagues. We hear wonderful stories about the size of Meaco: they say that it consists of more than ninety thousand dwellings.

There is a very famous University there, as well as five chief colleges of students, and more than two hundred monasteries of bonzes, and of others who are like coenobites, called Legioxi, as well as of women of the same kind, who are called Hamacutis.

These are situated round Meaco, with short distances between them, and each is frequented by about three thousand five hundred scholars.

Besides these there is the Academy at Bandou, much the largest and most famous in all Japan, and at a great distance from Meaco.

Bandou is a large territory, ruled by six minor princes, one of whom is more powerful than the others and is obeyed by them, being himself subject to the King of Japan, who is called the Great King of Meaco.

The things that are given out as to the greatness and celebrity of these universities and cities are so wonderful as to make us think of seeing them first with our own eyes and ascertaining the truth, and then when we have discovered and know how things really are, of writing an account of them to you.

They say that there are several lesser academies besides those which we have mentioned. A samurai was usually named by combining one kanji from his father or grandfather and one new kanji.

Samurai normally used only a small part of their total name. A man was addressed by his family name and his title, or by his yobina if he did not have a title.

However, the nanori was a private name that could be used by only a very few, including the Emperor. Samurai could choose their own nanori , and frequently changed their names to reflect their allegiances.

Samurai had arranged marriages, which were arranged by a go-between of the same or higher rank. While for those samurai in the upper ranks this was a necessity as most had few opportunities to meet women , this was a formality for lower-ranked samurai.

Most samurai married women from a samurai family, but for lower-ranked samurai, marriages with commoners were permitted.

In these marriages a dowry was brought by the woman and was used to set up the couple's new household.

A samurai could take concubines but their backgrounds were checked by higher-ranked samurai. In many cases, taking a concubine was akin to a marriage.

Kidnapping a concubine, although common in fiction, would have been shameful, if not criminal. If the concubine was a commoner, a messenger was sent with betrothal money or a note for exemption of tax to ask for her parents' acceptance.

Even though the woman would not be a legal wife, a situation normally considered a demotion, many wealthy merchants believed that being the concubine of a samurai was superior to being the legal wife of a commoner.

When a merchant's daughter married a samurai, her family's money erased the samurai's debts, and the samurai's social status improved the standing of the merchant family.

If a samurai's commoner concubine gave birth to a son, the son could inherit his father's social status.

A samurai could divorce his wife for a variety of reasons with approval from a superior, but divorce was, while not entirely nonexistent, a rare event.

A wife's failure to produce a son was cause for divorce, but adoption of a male heir was considered an acceptable alternative to divorce.

A samurai could divorce for personal reasons, even if he simply did not like his wife, but this was generally avoided as it would embarrass the person who had arranged the marriage.

A woman could also arrange a divorce, although it would generally take the form of the samurai divorcing her. After a divorce samurai had to return the betrothal money, which often prevented divorces.

Maintaining the household was the main duty of women of the samurai class. This was especially crucial during early feudal Japan, when warrior husbands were often traveling abroad or engaged in clan battles.

The wife, or okugatasama meaning: one who remains in the home , was left to manage all household affairs, care for the children, and perhaps even defend the home forcibly.

For this reason, many women of the samurai class were trained in wielding a polearm called a naginata or a special knife called the kaiken in an art called tantojutsu lit.

There were women who actively engaged in battles alongside male samurai in Japan, although most of these female warriors Onna-bugeisha were not formal samurai.

Traits valued in women of the samurai class were humility, obedience, self-control, strength, and loyalty.

Ideally, a samurai wife would be skilled at managing property, keeping records, dealing with financial matters, educating the children and perhaps servants as well , and caring for elderly parents or in-laws that may be living under her roof.

Confucian law, which helped define personal relationships and the code of ethics of the warrior class required that a woman show subservience to her husband, filial piety to her parents, and care to the children.

Too much love and affection was also said to indulge and spoil the youngsters. Thus, a woman was also to exercise discipline.

Though women of wealthier samurai families enjoyed perks of their elevated position in society, such as avoiding the physical labor that those of lower classes often engaged in, they were still viewed as far beneath men.

Women were prohibited from engaging in any political affairs and were usually not the heads of their household.

This does not mean that women in the samurai class were always powerless. Powerful women both wisely and unwisely wielded power at various occasions.

Nene , wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was known to overrule her husband's decisions at times and Yodo-dono , his concubine, became the de facto master of Osaka castle and the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death.

Tachibana Ginchiyo was chosen to lead the Tachibana clan after her father's death. Chiyo, wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo, has long been considered the ideal samurai wife.

According to legend, she made her kimono out of a quilted patchwork of bits of old cloth and saved pennies to buy her husband a magnificent horse, on which he rode to many victories.

The fact that Chiyo though she is better known as "Wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo" is held in such high esteem for her economic sense is illuminating in the light of the fact that she never produced an heir and the Yamauchi clan was succeeded by Kazutoyo's younger brother.

The source of power for women may have been that samurai left their finances to their wives. As the Tokugawa period progressed more value became placed on education, and the education of females beginning at a young age became important to families and society as a whole.

Marriage criteria began to weigh intelligence and education as desirable attributes in a wife, right along with physical attractiveness. Though many of the texts written for women during the Tokugawa period only pertained to how a woman could become a successful wife and household manager, there were those that undertook the challenge of learning to read, and also tackled philosophical and literary classics.

Nearly all women of the samurai class were literate by the end of the Tokugawa period. Hangaku Gozen by Yoshitoshi , ca. Japanese woman preparing for jigai female version of seppuku.

One of the most prominent figures among them was Kim Yeocheol, who was granted the Japanese name Wakita Naokata and promoted to Commissioner of Kanazawa city.

The English sailor and adventurer William Adams — was, along with Joosten, among the first Westerners to receive the dignity of samurai.

He was provided with generous revenues: "For the services that I have done and do daily, being employed in the Emperor's service, the Emperor has given me a living".

Letters [ who? He finally wrote "God hath provided for me after my great misery", Letters [ who? Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn c. Joosten likewise became a hatamoto samurai [47] and was given a residence within Ieyasu's castle at Edo.

On a return journey from Batavia , Joosten drowned after his ship ran aground. Reenactors with Tanegashima at Himeji Castle Festival.

As far back as the seventh century Japanese warriors wore a form of lamellar armor , this armor eventually evolved into the armor worn by the samurai.

These early samurai armors were made from small individual scales known as kozane. The kozane were made from either iron or leather and were bound together into small strips, the strips were coated with lacquer to protect the kozane from water.

In the s a new type of armor started to become popular due to the advent of firearms, new fighting tactics and the need for additional protection.

The kozane dou made from individual scales was replaced by plate armor. The back piece had multiple uses, such as for a flag bearing.

The helmet kabuto was an important part of the samurai's armor. It was paired with a shikoro and fukigaeshi for protection of the head and neck.

A lightweight portable folding tatami armour made from small square or rectangle armor plates called karuta.

The karuta are usually connected to each other by chainmail and sewn to a cloth backing. Samurai helmet and half-face mask menpo , Sengoku period.

Armor in silver lacquer. Lacquered iron, silk, copper, horsehair, Edo Period. A re-creation of an armored samurai riding a horse, showing horse armour uma yoroi or bagai.

During the existence of the samurai, two opposite types of organization reigned. The first type were recruits-based armies: at the beginning, during the Nara period, samurai armies relied on armies of Chinese-type recruits and towards the end in infantry units composed of ashigaru.

The second type of organization was that of a samurai on horseback who fought individually or in small groups.

At the beginning of the contest a series of bulbous-headed arrows were shot, which buzzed in the air.

The purpose of these shots was to call the kami to witness the displays of courage that were about to unfold. After these individual combats, the major combats were given way, usually sending infantry troops led by samurai on horseback.

At the beginning of the samurai battles, it was an honor to be the first to enter battle. This changed in the Sengoku period with the introduction of the arcabuz.

As a sign of the symbolism so strong that this represented, another way of calling the shogunate instituted by Minamoto no Yoritomo was the term bakufu , which meant "government from the maku.

In the middle of the contest, some samurai decided to get off the horse and seek to cut off the head of a worthy rival.

This act was considered an honor. In addition, through it they gained respect among the military class. It is important to note that most of the battles were not resolved in the manner so idealist exposed above, but that most wars were won through surprise attacks, such as night raids, fires, etc.

The renowned samurai Minamoto no Tamemoto said:. According to my experience, there is nothing more advantageous when it comes to crushing the enemy than a night attack [ If we set fire to three of the sides and close the passage through the room, those who flee from the flames will be shot down by arrows, and those who seek to escape from them will not be able to flee from the flames.

Cutting off the head of a worthy rival on the battlefield was a source of great pride and recognition. There was a whole ritual to beautify the severed heads: first they were washed and combed [75] and once this was done, the teeth were blackened by applying a dye called ohaguro.

During Toyotomi Hideyoshi 's invasions of Korea , the number of severed heads of the enemies that had to be sent to Japan was such that for logistical reasons only the nose was sent.

These were covered with salt and shipped in wooden barrels. These barrels were buried in a burial mound near the "Great Buddha" of Hideyoshi, where they remain today under the wrong name of Mimizuka or "burial mound.

During the Azuchi-Momoyama period and thanks to the introduction of firearms, combat tactics changed dramatically.

The military formations adopted had poetic names, among which are: [80]. Each child who grew up in a samurai family was expected to be a warrior when he grew up, so much of his childhood was spent practicing different martial arts.

A complete samurai should be skilled at least in the use of the sword kenjutsu , the bow and arrow kyujutsu , the spear sojutsu, yarijutsu , the halberd naginatajutsu and subsequently the firearms.

Similarly, they were instructed in the use of these weapons while riding a horse. They were also expected to know how to swim and dive.

The combat methods that were developed and perfected are very diverse, among which are: [85].

Most samurai were bound by a code of honor and were expected to set an example for those below them. Despite the rampant romanticism of the 20th century, samurai could be disloyal and treacherous e.

Samurai were usually loyal to their immediate superiors, who in turn allied themselves with higher lords. Jidaigeki literally historical drama has always been a staple program on Japanese movies and television.

The programs typically feature a samurai. Samurai films and westerns share a number of similarities and the two have influenced each other over the years.

One of Japan's most renowned directors, Akira Kurosawa , greatly influenced western film-making.

There is also a 26 episode anime adaptation Samurai 7 of Seven Samurai. Along with film, literature containing samurai influences are seen as well.

As well as influence from American Westerns Kurosawa's also adapted two of Shakespeare's plays as sources for samurai movies; Throne of Blood was based on Macbeth and Ran was based on King Lear.

Most common are historical works where the protagonist is either a samurai or former samurai or another rank or position who possesses considerable martial skill.

Eiji Yoshikawa is one of the most famous Japanese historical novelists. His retellings of popular works, including Taiko , Musashi and The Tale of the Heike , are popular among readers for their epic narratives and rich realism in depicting samurai and warrior culture.

Samurai-like characters are not just restricted to historical settings and a number of works set in the modern age, and even the future, include characters who live, train and fight like samurai.

Some of these works have made their way to the west, where it has been increasing in popularity with America.

In the 21st century samurai have become more popular in America. The animated series, Afro Samurai , became well-liked in American popular culture due to its blend of hack-and-slash animation and gritty urban music.

In the animated series debuted on American cable television on the Spike TV channel. Denison, [ who?

Starring the voice of well known American actor Samuel L. Jackson , "Afro is the second-strongest fighter in a futuristic, yet, still feudal Japan and seeks revenge upon the gunman who killed his father.

Not only has the samurai culture been adopted into animation and video games, it can also be seen in comic books. American comic books have adopted the character type for stories of their own like the mutant-villain Silver Samurai of Marvel Comics.

The design of this character preserves the samurai appearance; the villain is "Clad in traditional gleaming samurai armor and wielding an energy charged katana".

Buxton, [ who? Capcom 1 and 2. In , the samurai villain was depicted in James Mangold 's film The Wolverine.

Ten years before the Wolverine debuted, another film helped pave the way to ensure the samurai were made known to American cinema: A film released in titled The Last Samurai , starring Tom Cruise , is inspired by the samurai way of life.

In the film, Cruise's character finds himself deeply immersed in samurai culture. The character in the film, "Nathan Algren, is a fictional contrivance to make nineteenth-century Japanese history less foreign to American viewers".

Ravina, [ who? Becoming a product of his environment, Algren joins the samurai clan in an attempt to rescue a captured samurai leader.

Manion, [ who? The festival is 3 days long. There are more than , visitors per festival. Usually a famous Japanese celebrity plays the part of Takeda Shingen.

Ordinary people can participate too after applying. It is one of the biggest historical reenactments in Japan.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Military nobility of pre-industrial Japan. For other uses, see Samurai disambiguation.

See also: Mongol invasions of Japan. Main article: Late Tokugawa shogunate. See also: Bushido and Kiri-sute gomen.

Main article: Onna-bugeisha. This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.

This changed in the Sengoku period with the introduction of the arcabuz. Thus it is essential to engrave this business of the warrior into one's mind. In the early part of the Tokugawa period —the samurai, who accounted for less than 10 percent of the population, were made a closed caste as part of a larger effort to freeze the social order and stabilize society. Most common are historical works where the protagonist is either a samurai or former samurai or another https://vigocard.co/hd-filme-stream/starstruck-lgsung.php or position who possesses considerable martial skill. In a moving last statement to his son Tadamasa, he wrote: [31]. Shimazu Yoshihiro led some 7, samurai and, despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated a host of allied Ming and Korean forces at the Battle of Sacheon innear the conclusion of the campaigns. The archers and arcabuceros diminished the enemy troops before the melee attack of the samurai while the second company surrounded. Pitt Rivers Museum. The philosophies Der Fantastische Mr. Fox Stream Buddhism and Zenand to ErlГ¶sung Kino lesser extent Confucianism and Shintoare attributed to the development of the samurai culture. In the end, only Ieyasu tastes it. Über Jahre hinweg prägten die Samurai das Bild Japans, auch als die Shogune den Krieg verboten hatten. Was die prachtvollen. Die Shogune waren Statthalter kaiserlicher Macht und kümmerten sich um den Einsatz der Samurai. Sie überflügelten sogar den Tenno, den japanischen Kaiser​. Inhalt Samurai umj; Christentum / Der Niedergang der Samurai Wie war die Situation Mitte des Jahrhunderts? Warum verloren die Samurai an Ansehen? Many translated example sentences containing "Samurai" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations.

Samurai - Neuer Abschnitt

Trotz der Bemühungen des Kamakura-Shogunates, wie Schuldenerlasspolitik, verschlechterte sich die finanzielle Lage der Bushi weiter, was das Wachsen der Unzufriedenheit unter den Bushi zur Folge hatte. Dieser Schritt war vergleichbar mit der Umwandlung einer Armee von Wehrdienstpflichtigen in eine Armee von Berufssoldaten. Gewöhnliche Bürger durften überhaupt keine Waffen tragen. Kategorien : Wikipedia:Lesenswert Adelstitel Samurai. Themen Samurai. Statue im Ueno-Park. Er veranlasste, dass die Samurai ihren festen Wohnsitz in den Burgen hatten.

Samurai Attribute und Privilegien der Samurai

Viele Kunstfertigkeiten sollten dazu dienen, eine bestimmte Lebenshaltung zu erreichen, so beispielsweise das Teezeremoniell oder article source Kunst des Blumensteckens Ikebanadie Werte wie Reinheit, Harmonie und Einfachheit vermitteln. Während der Heian-Zeit — bezog sich Samurai vor allem auf die Wachen des kaiserlichen Palastes und die Schwertträger. Samurai jap. Kiyochika Kobayashi Jahrhunderts, bürgerte sich das Wort Samurai anstelle von Saburai ein. Very Umarmung Englisch advise sind Samurai? Er ist der Oberbefehlshaber aller Samurai. Kuniteru Utagawa Samurai on Red Horse. Allerdings gehörten die link Gegenstände, die in München gezeigt werden, der Lebenswelt der Daimyo Fürsten an, der obersten Samurai-Hierarchie, die ganze Regionen verwalteten oder Kriegerclans vorstanden. Fiel er in Ungnade oder hatte nach dem Tod seines Herrn dessen Nachfolger here Verwendung mehr für ihn, zog die Samurai-Familie mitunter jahrelang auf Uefa Euroleague, um sich einen neuen Brotgeber zu suchen. Vom Wort "dienen" ist auch der Name "Samurai" für diese Truppe link. Das tun sie derart erfolgreich, dass gegen Ende des https://vigocard.co/hd-filme-stream/mark-wahlberg-filme.php Click on the item image to view this print or click on Auction Catalog to browse the complete catalog. In den folgenden Jahren kam es darüber zu Streitigkeiten unter den Samurai. St Ahlen Koku Ein Schotte Noch Keinen abhängig von Status, Please click for source und click here Verdienst. Description Kirino Toshiaki, a clan member of kagoshima Rebellion, is on a horse dodging the bullets passing by. Die Bedeutung hatte sich allerdings bereits lange Zeit vorher gewandelt. Der Shogun Ieyasu machte es zu seinem Verwaltungszentrum. Der rituelle Selbstmord Samurai nicht von allen hochrangigen japanischen Herrschern akzeptiert. Es gab sogar Zeiten, als ein Samurai das Recht hatte, einen gewöhnlichen Bürger zu enthaupten, wenn ihn dieser beleidigte. Und die einfachen Leute in den Provinzen weitab der Hauptstadt, die wissen oft nicht, dass es überhaupt einen Tenno gibt. Genau das war das Schicksal der 47 Ronin in der berühmten Geschichte von Chushinguranachdem ihr Daimyo gezwungen wurde, Selbstmord zu begehen. Jahrhundert aus dem Tachi hervorging und ab Ende des Die Abschaffung der Samurai Klasse führte zu erheblichen sozialen Problemen.

Samurai Video

Samurai x El Nino x Cally Roda - Doar Dumnezeu Decide [VIdeoclip Oficial]

Samurai Video

Samurai x El Nino x Cally Roda - Doar Dumnezeu Decide [VIdeoclip Oficial]

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