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John Hannahs Leben hat einige entscheidende Wendungen erfahren, seit er sich als Elektriker und mit anderen Teilzeitjobs in Glasgow über Wasser hielt. John David Hannah (* April in East Kilbride, Schottland) ist ein britischer Schauspieler. Leben[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Hannah besuchte die. John Doe, $1, Because that's all Steve Jobs needed for a salary. Jane Doe, $K, For all the blogging she does. Fred Bloggs, $M.
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The conscious renunciation of the demand to be heard, the despair at not being able to be heard, and finally the need to speak even without an answer—these are the real reasons for the darkness, asperity, and tension of the style in which poetry indicates its own possibilities and its will to form [p] .
Arendt also published an article on Augustine — in the Frankfurter Zeitung  to mark the fifteen-hundredth anniversary of his death.
She saw this article as forming a bridge between her treatment of Augustine in her dissertation and her subsequent work on Romanticism.
In Berlin, where the couple initially lived in the predominantly Jewish area of Bayerisches Viertel Bavarian Quarter or "Jewish Switzerland" in Schöneberg,   Stern obtained a position as a staff-writer for the cultural supplement of the Berliner Börsen-Courier , edited by Herbert Ihering , with the help of Bertold Brecht.
There he started writing using the nom-de-plume of Günther Anders, i. While Günther was working on his Habilitationsschrift , Arendt had abandoned the original subject of German Romanticism for her thesis in , and turned instead to Rahel Varnhagen and the question of assimilation.
A little later, Arendt's own work on romanticism led her to a study of Jewish salons and eventually to those of Varnhagen. In Rahel, she found qualities she felt reflected her own, particularly those of sensibility and vulnerability.
Hannah Arendt would come to call Rahel Varnhagen's discovery of living with her destiny as being a "conscious pariah".
Back in Berlin, Arendt found herself becoming more involved in politics and started studying political theory, and reading Marx and Trotsky , while developing contacts at the Deutsche Hochschule für Politik.
She wrote a review of Hans Weil 's Die Entstehung des deutschen Bildungsprinzips The Origin of German Educational Principle , ,  which dealt with the emergence of Bildungselite educational elite in the time of Rahel Varnhagen.
At least in terms of the status of women at that time, she was skeptical of the movement's ability to achieve political change.
In this manner she echoed Rosa Luxemburg. Like Luxemburg, she would later criticize Jewish movements for the same reason.
Arendt consistently prioritized political over social questions. By , faced with a deteriorating political situation, Arendt was deeply troubled by reports that Heidegger was speaking at National Socialist meetings.
She wrote, asking him to deny that he was attracted to National Socialism. Heidegger replied that he did not seek to deny the rumors which were true , and merely assured her that his feelings for her were unchanged.
Jaspers had tried to persuade her to consider herself as a German first, a position she distanced herself from, pointing out that she was a Jew and that " Für mich ist Deutschland die Muttersprache, die Philosophie und die Dichtung " For me, Germany is the mother tongue, philosophy and poetry , rather than her identity.
This position puzzled Jaspers, replying "It is strange to me that as a Jew you want to be different from the Germans". By , life for the Jewish population in Germany was becoming precarious.
Adolf Hitler became Reichskanzler Chancellor in January, and the Reichstag was burned down Reichstagsbrand the following month.
This led to the suspension of civil liberties , with attacks on the left, and, in particular, members of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands German Communist Party: KPD.
Stern, who had communist associations, fled to Paris, but Arendt stayed on to become an activist. Knowing her time was limited, she used the apartment at Opitzstrasse 6 in Berlin-Steglitz that she had occupied with Stern since as an underground railway way-station for fugitives.
Her rescue operation there is now recognized with a plaque on the wall see image. Arendt had already positioned herself as a critic of the rising Nazi Party in by publishing " Adam-Müller-Renaissance?
The beginnings of anti-Jewish laws and boycott came in the spring of Confronted with systemic antisemitism, Arendt adopted the motiv "If one is attacked as a Jew one must defend oneself as a Jew.
Not as a German, not as a world citizen, not as an upholder of the Rights of Man. She opened with the declaration:.
Today in Germany it seems Jewish assimilation must declare its bankruptcy. The general social antisemitism and its official legitimation affects in the first instance assimilated Jews, who can no longer protect themselves through baptism or by emphasizing their differences from Eastern Judaism.
As a Jew, Arendt was anxious to inform the world of what was happening to her people in — Arendt had access to the Prussian State Library for her work on Varnhagen.
Blumenfeld's Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland Zionist Federation of Germany persuaded her to use this access to obtain evidence of the extent of antisemitism, for a planned speech to the Zionist Congress in Prague.
This research was illegal at the time. They served eight days in prison but her notebooks were in code and could not be deciphered, and she was released by a young, sympathetic arresting officer to await trial.
On release, realizing the danger she was now in, Arendt and her mother fled Germany  following the established escape route over the Erzgebirge Mountains by night into Czechoslovakia and on to Prague and then by train to Geneva.
In Geneva, she made a conscious decision to commit herself to "the Jewish cause". She obtained work with a friend of her mother's at the League of Nations ' Jewish Agency for Palestine, distributing visas and writing speeches.
From Geneva the Arendts traveled to Paris in the autumn, where she was reunited with Stern, joining a stream of refugees. Initially she was employed as a secretary, and then office manager.
To improve her skills she studied French, Hebrew and Yiddish. In this way she was able to support herself and her husband.
In this position she oversaw the baroness' contributions to Jewish charities through the Paris Consistoire , although she had little time for the family as a whole.
Later in , Arendt joined Youth Aliyah Youth immigration , [v] an organization similar to Agriculture et Artisanat that was founded in Berlin on the day Hitler seized power.
It was affiliated with Hadassah. One stepdaughter had died and the other had moved to England, Martin Beerwald would not leave and she no longer had any close ties to Königsberg.
She fulfilled her social obligations and used the name Hannah Stern, but the relationship effectively ended when Stern, perhaps recognizing the danger better than she, emigrated to America with his parents in She had begun seeing more of Blücher, and eventually they began living together.
It was Blücher's long political activism that began to move Arendt's thinking towards political action. Arendt described the process of making refugees as "the new type of human being created by contemporary history Arendt and the other women were sent to Camp Gurs , to the west of Gurs, a week later.
The camp had originally been set up to accommodate refugees from Spain. Gurs was in the southern Vichy controlled section.
Arendt describes how, "in the resulting chaos we succeeded in getting hold of liberation papers with which we were able to leave the camp",  which she did with about of the 7, women held there, about four weeks later.
Montauban had become an unofficial capital for former detainees, [y] and Arendt's friend Lotta Sempell Klembort was staying there.
Blücher's camp had been evacuated in the wake of the German advance, and he managed to escape from a forced march, making his way to Montauban, where the two of them led a fugitive life.
Soon they were joined by Anne Mendelssohn and Arendt's mother. Escape from France was extremely difficult without official papers; their friend Walter Benjamin had taken his own life after being apprehended trying to escape to Spain.
One of the best known illegal routes operated out of Marseilles , where Varian Fry , an American journalist, worked to raise funds, forge papers and bribe officials with Hiram Bingham , the American vice-consul there.
Upon arriving in New York City on 22 May with very little, they received assistance from the Zionist Organization of America and the local German immigrant population, including Paul Tillich and neighbors from Königsburg.
There was an urgent need to acquire English, and it was decided that Hannah Arendt should spend two months with an American family in Winchester, Massachusetts , through Self-Help for Refugees, in July.
On returning to New York, Arendt was anxious to resume writing and became active in the German-Jewish community, publishing her first article, "From the Dreyfus Affair to France Today" in translation from her German in July Arendt's first full-time salaried job came in , when she became the director of research and Executive Director for the newly emerging Commission on European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction , a project of the Conference on Jewish Relations.
There she compiled lists of Jewish cultural assets in Germany and Nazi occupied Europe, to aid in their recovery after the war. In July , Arendt left her position at the Commission on European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction to become an editor at Schocken Books , [ad] which later published a number of her works.
In her capacity as executive secretary, she traveled to Europe, where she worked in Germany, Britain and France December to March to negotiate the return of archival material from German institutions, an experience she found frustrating, but providing regular field reports.
This report has been influential in forming her popular recognition, and raised much controversy see below. Her work was recognized by many awards, including the Danish Sonning Prize in for Contributions to European Civilization.
Arendt taught at many institutions of higher learning from onwards, but, preserving her independence, consistently refused tenure-track positions.
She served as a visiting scholar at the University of Notre Dame ; University of California, Berkeley ; Princeton University where she was the first woman to be appointed a full professor in ; and Northwestern University.
She also taught at the University of Chicago from to , where she was a member of the Committee on Social Thought ; The New School in Manhattan where she taught as a university professor from ;   Yale University , where she was a fellow ; and the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan University —62, — She wrote a letter to the president of Stanford to persuade the university to enact Mark Mancall's vision of a residentially based humanities program.
In addition to her affair with Heidegger, and her two marriages, Arendt had a number of close friendships.
Since her death, her correspondences with many of them have been published, revealing much information about her thinking. To her friends she was both loyal and generous, dedicating a number of her works to them.
Her philosophy-based friendships were male and European, while her later American friendships were more diverse, literary, and political.
Although she became an American citizen in , her cultural roots remained European, and her language remained her German " Muttersprache ". To her, wirkliche Menschen real people were "pariahs", not in the sense of outcasts, but in the sense of outsiders, unassimilated, with the virtue of "social nonconformism Arendt always had a beste Freundin.
In her teens she had formed a lifelong relationship with her Jugendfreundin , Anne Mendelssohn Weil "Annchen".
On emigrating to America, Hilde Frankel, Paul Tillich's secretary and mistress, filled that role until her death in After the war, Arendt was able to return to Germany and renew her relationship with Weil, who made several visits to New York, especially after Blücher's death in Their last meeting was in Tegna, Switzerland in , shortly before Arendt's death.
Heinrich Blücher had survived a cerebral aneurysm in and remained unwell after , sustaining a series of heart attacks.
On 31 October he died of a massive heart attack. She sustained a near fatal heart attack while lecturing in Scotland in May , and although she recovered, she remained in poor health afterwards, and continued to smoke.
After Arendt's death the title page of the final part of The Life of the Mind "Judging" was found in her typewriter, which she had just started, consisting of the title and two epigraphs.
This has subsequently been reproduced see image. Arendt wrote works on intellectual history as a philosopher, using events and actions to develop insights into contemporary totalitarian movements and the threat to human freedom presented by scientific abstraction and bourgeois morality.
Intellectually, she was an independent thinker, a loner not a "joiner", separating herself from schools of thought or ideology.
While Arendt never developed a coherent political theory and her writing does not easily lend itself to categorization, the tradition of thought most closely identified with Arendt is that of civic republicanism , from Aristotle to Tocqueville.
Her political concept is centered around active citizenship that emphasizes civic engagement and collective deliberation.
Her political legacy is her strong defense of freedom in the face of an increasingly less than free world. While she is best known for her work on "dark times", [ag] the nature of totalitarianism and evil, she imbued this with a spark of hope and confidence in the nature of mankind: .
That even in the darkest of times we have the right to expect some illumination, and that such illumination might well come less from theories and concepts than from the uncertain, flickering, and often weak light that some men and women, in their lives and their works, will kindle under almost all circumstances and shed over the time span that was given to them.
Arendt's doctoral thesis, Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin. Versuch einer philosophischen Interpretation  Love and Saint Augustine , was published in and attracted critical interest, although an English translation did not appear until Arendt's interpretation of love in the work of Augustine deals with three concepts, love as craving or desire Amor qua appetitus , love in the relationship between man creatura and creator Creator - Creatura , and neighborly love Dilectio proximi.
Love as craving anticipates the future, while love for the Creator deals with the remembered past. Of the three, dilectio proximi or caritas [ah] is perceived as the most fundamental, to which the first two are oriented, which she treats under vita socialis social life.
The second of the Great Commandments or Golden Rule "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" uniting and transcending the former. Some of the leitmotifs of her canon were apparent, introducing the concept of Natalität Natality as a key condition of human existence and its role in the development of the individual,    developing this further in The Human Condition Love is another connecting theme.
In addition to the Augustinian loves expostulated in her dissertation, the phrase amor mundi love of the world is one often associated with Arendt and both permeates her work and was an absorbing passion throughout her work.
Arendt's first major book, The Origins of Totalitarianism ,  examined the roots of Communism and Nazism , structured as three essays, "Antisemitism", "Imperialism" and "Totalitarianism".
Arendt argues that totalitarianism was a "novel form of government," that "differs essentially from other forms of political oppression known to us such as despotism, tyranny and dictatorship"  in that it applied terror to subjugate mass populations rather than just political adversaries.
Arendt's Habilitationsschrift on Rahel Varnhagen was completed while she was living in exile in Paris in , but not published till , in the United Kingdom by East and West Library, part of the Leo Baeck Institute.
In addition it represents an early version of her concept of history. Her account of Varnhagen's life was perceived during a time of the destruction of German-Jewish culture.
It partially reflects Arendt's own view of herself as a German-Jewish woman driven out of her own culture into a stateless existence,  leading to the description "biography as autobiography".
In what is arguably her most influential work, The Human Condition ,  Arendt differentiates political and social concepts, labor and work, and various forms of actions; she then explores the implications of those distinctions.
Her theory of political action, corresponding to the existence of a public realm, is extensively developed in this work.
Arendt argues that, while human life always evolves within societies, the social part of human nature, political life, has been intentionally realized in only a few societies as a space for individuals to achieve freedom.
Conceptual categories, which attempt to bridge the gap between ontological and sociological structures, are sharply delineated.
While Arendt relegates labor and work to the realm of the social, she favors the human condition of action as that which is both existential and aesthetic.
These are forgiving past wrong or unfixing the fixed past and promising future benefit or fixing the unfixed future. Arendt had first introduced the concept of "natality" in her Love and Saint Augustine  and in The Human Condition starts to develop this further.
In this, she departs from Heidegger's emphasis on mortality. Arendt's positive message is one of the "miracle of beginning", the continual arrival of the new to create action, that is to alter the state of affairs brought about by previous actions.
She defined her use of "natality" as:. The miracle that saves the world, the realm of human affairs, from its normal, "natural" ruin is ultimately the fact of natality, in which the faculty of action is ontologically rooted.
It is, in other words, the birth of new men and the new beginning, the action they are capable of by virtue of being born. Natality would go on to become a central concept of her political theory, and also what Karin Fry considers its most optimistic one.
Between Past and Future is an anthology of eight essays written between and , dealing with a variety of different but connected philosophical subjects.
These essays share the central idea that humans live between the past and the uncertain future. Man must permanently think to exist, but must learn thinking.
Humans have resorted to tradition, but are abandoning respect for this tradition and culture.
Arendt tries to find solutions to help humans think again, since modern philosophy has not succeeded in helping humans to live correctly.
Arendt's book On Revolution  presents a comparison of two of the main revolutions of the eighteenth century, the American and French Revolutions.
She goes against a common impression of both Marxist and leftist views when she argues that France, while well-studied and often emulated, was a disaster and that the largely ignored American Revolution was a success.
The turning point in the French Revolution occurred when the leaders rejected their goals of freedom in order to focus on compassion for the masses.
In the United States , the founders never betray the goal of Constitutio Libertatis. Arendt believes the revolutionary spirit of those men had been lost, however, and advocates a "council system" as an appropriate institution to regain that spirit.
These related essays deal with contemporary American politics and the crises it faced in the s and s. Thus, she breaks with the predominant conception of power as derived from violence.
Arendt was a minor poet, but kept this very private. Its opening stanza read: . Evening falling— a soft lamenting sounds in the bird calls I have summoned.
Dusk will come again sometime. Night will come down from the stars. We will rest our outstretched arms In the nearness, in the distances.
When Hannah Arendt died in , she left a major work incomplete, which was later published in as The Life of the Mind. Since then a number of her minor works have been collected and published, mainly under the editorship of Jerome Kohn.
In "Essays in Understanding" appeared as the first of a series covering the period —, but attracted little attention.
A new version of Origins of Totalitarianism appeared in followed by The Promise of Politics in The renewed interest in Arendtiana following these publications led to a second series of essays, Thinking Without a Banister: Essays in Understanding, , published in Other collections have dealt with her Jewish identity, including The Jew as Pariah and The Jewish Writings , moral philosophy including Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy and Responsibility and Judgment , together with her literary works as Reflections on Literature and Culture Arendt's last major work, The Life of the Mind  remained incomplete at the time of her death, but marked a return to moral philosophy.
The outline of the book was based on her graduate level political philosophy class, Philosophy of the Mind , and her Gifford Lectures in Scotland.
Her most recent work had focused on the first two, but went beyond this in terms of vita activa. Her discussion of thinking was based on Socrates and his notion of thinking as a solitary dialogue between oneself, leading her to novel concepts of conscience.
Arendt died suddenly five days after completing the second part, with the first page of Judging, still in her typewriter, and McCarthy then edited the first two parts and provided some indication of the direction of the third.
These have since been published separately. After Hannah Arendt's death a number of her essays and notes have continued to be edited and published posthumously by friends and colleagues, including those that give some insight into the unfinished third part of The Life of the Mind.
Some further insight into her thinking is provided in the continuing posthumous publication of her correspondence with many of the important figures in her life, including Karl Jaspers ,  Mary McCarthy ,  Heinrich Blücher ,  Martin Heidegger , [al]  Alfred Kazin ,  Walter Benjamin ,  Gershom Scholem  and Günther Stern In , on hearing of Adolf Eichmann's capture and plans for his trial , Hannah Arendt contacted The New Yorker and offered to travel to Israel to cover it when it opened on 11 April Also she had witnessed "little of the Nazi regime directly" [am]  and this was an opportunity to witness an agent of totalitarianism first hand.
The offer was accepted and she attended six weeks of the five-month trial with her young cousin from Israel, Edna Brocke. Most famously, Arendt coined the phrase "the banality of evil " to describe the phenomenon of Eichmann.
She, like others,  was struck by his very ordinariness and the demeanor he exhibited of a small, slightly balding, bland bureaucrat, in contrast to the horrific crimes he stood accused of.
Arendt's argument was that Eichmann was not a monster, contrasting the immensity of his actions with the very ordinariness of the man himself.
Eichmann, she stated, not only called himself a Zionist, having initially opposed the Jewish persecution, but also expected his captors to understand him.
She pointed out that his actions were not driven by malice, but rather blind dedication to the regime and his need to belong, to be a joiner.
On this, Arendt would later state "Going along with the rest and wanting to say 'we' were quite enough to make the greatest of all crimes possible".
This led her to set out her most famous, and most debated, dictum: "the lesson that this long course in human wickedness had taught us — the lesson of the fearsome, word-and-thought-defying banality of evil".
Arendt, who eschewed identity politics , was also critical of the way Israel depicted Eichmann's crimes as crimes against a nation state, rather than against humanity itself.
Arendt was also critical of the way that some Jewish leaders associated with the Jewish Councils Judenräte , notably M.
Rumkowski , acted during the Holocaust , in cooperating with Eichmann "almost without exception" in the destruction of their own people.
While her argument was not to allocate blame, rather she mourned what she considered a moral failure of compromising the imperative that it is better to suffer wrong than to do wrong.
She describes the cooperation of the Jewish leaders in terms of a disintegration of Jewish morality: "This role of the Jewish leaders in the destruction of their own people is undoubtedly the darkest chapter in the whole dark story".
Widely misunderstood, this caused an even greater controversy and particularly animosity toward her in the Jewish community and in Israel.
Arendt's five-part series "Eichmann in Jerusalem" appeared in the New Yorker in February  some nine months after Eichmann was hanged on 31 May By this time his trial was largely forgotten in the popular mind, superseded by intervening world events.
I'm afraid it cannot go well". Arendt was profoundly shocked by the response, writing to Karl Jaspers "People are resorting to any means to destroy my reputation They have spent weeks trying to find something in my past that they can hang on me".
Now she was being called arrogant, heartless and ill-informed. She was accused of being duped by Eichmann, of being a "self-hating Jewess", and even an enemy of Israel.
Because of this lingering criticism neither this book nor any of her other works were translated into Hebrew until Although Arendt complained that she was being criticized for telling the truth — "what a risky business to tell the truth on a factual level without theoretical and scholarly embroidery" [as]  — the criticism was largely directed to her theorizing on the nature of mankind and evil and that ordinary people were driven to commit the inexplicable not so much by hatred and ideology as ambition, and inability to empathize.
Equally problematic was the suggestion that the victims deceived themselves and complied in their own destruction. Roger Berkowitz states that Arendt neither defended Eichmann, nor denied that his actions were evil and that he was an anti-semite, nor that he should be executed for his actions.
But rather that we should understand that those actions were neither monstrous, nor sadistic. In understanding Eichmann, Arendt argues, we come to understand a greater truth about the nature of evil, that individuals participate in atrocities from an inability to critically examine blind allegiance to ideologies that provide a sense of meaning in a lonely and alienating world.
Thus, she concludes, thoughtless zealotry is the face of evil in the modern world. Rejections of Arendt's characterization of Eichmann  and allegations of racism against her have persisted ever since,  though much of this is based on information that was not available at the time of the trial.
Irving Howe , one of her critics, described how the Eichmann issue engendered what approached "civil war" amongst New York intellectuals.
Howe rightly surmised that "such controversies are never settled. They die down, simmer, and erupt again". Berkowitz states that claiming Arendt exonerated Eichmann as simply a man who followed orders, is a misreading of the book.
In fact she argued that Eichmann acted equally out of conviction, and even at times disobeyed orders, such as those of Himmler. Eichmann was, as Berkowitz states, "someone convinced that he was sacrificing an easy morality for a higher good".
Arendt's depiction of the nature of evil has proved both tenacious and timeless in its relevance. While much has been made of Arendt's treatment of Eichmann, Ada Ushpiz, in her documentary Vita Activa: The Spirit of Hannah Arendt ,  placed it in a much broader context of the use of rationality to explain seemingly irrational historical events.
In an interview with Joachim Fest in ,  Arendt was asked about Eichmann's defense that he had made Kant's principle of the duty of obedience his guiding principle all his life.
Arendt replied that that was outrageous and that Eichmann was misusing Kant, by not considering the element of judgement required in assessing one's own actions — " Kein Mensch hat bei Kant das Recht zu gehorchen " No man has, according to Kant, the right to obey , she stated, paraphrasing Kant.
Kant clearly defines a higher moral duty than rendering merely unto Caesar. Arendt herself had written in her book "This was outrageous, on the face of it, and also incomprehensible, since Kant's moral philosophy is so closely bound up with man's faculty of judgment, which rules out blind obedience.
The phrase Niemand hat das Recht zu gehorchen has become one of her iconic images, appearing on the wall of the house in which she was born see Commemorations , among other places.
The phrase has been appearing in other artistic work featuring political messages, such as the installation by Wilfried Gerstel, which has evoked the concept of resistance to dictatorship, as expressed in her essay "Personal Responsibility under Dictatorship" She wrote:.
On top, the judges, the best of German Jewry. Below them, the prosecuting attorneys, Galicians , but still Europeans.
Everything is organized by a police force that gives me the creeps, speaks only Hebrew, and looks Arabic. Some downright brutal types among them.
They would obey any order. And outside the doors, the oriental mob, as if one were in Istanbul or some other half-Asiatic country.
Although Arendt remained a Zionist both during and after World War II, she made it clear that she favored the creation of a Jewish-Arab federated state in Palestine, rather than a purely Jewish state.
She believed that this was a way to address Jewish statelessness and to avoid the pitfalls of nationalism.
It was not just Arendt's analysis of the Eichmann trial that drew accusations of racism. In her essay in Dissent entitled Reflections on Little Rock  she expressed opposition to desegregation following the Little Rock Integration Crisis in Arkansas.
As she explains in the preface, for a long time the magazine was reluctant to print her contribution, so far did it appear to differ from the publication's liberal values.
Eventually it was printed alongside critical responses. Later the New Yorker would express similar hesitancy over the Eichmann papers.
So vehement was the response, that Arendt felt obliged to defend herself in a sequel. She felt that the children were being subjected to trauma in order to serve a broader political strategy of forcible integration.
In The Origins of Totalitarianism , Hannah Arendt devotes a lengthy chapter The Decline of the Nation-State and the End of the Rights of Man  to a critical analysis of human rights, in what has been described as "the most widely read essay on refugees ever published".
In contrast, civil rights are possessed by virtue of belonging to a political community, most commonly by being a citizen.
Arendt's primary criticism of human rights is that they are ineffectual and illusory because their enforcement is in tension with national sovereignty.
This can be seen most clearly by examining the treatment of refugees and other stateless people. Since the refugee has no state to secure their civil rights, the only rights they have to fall back on are human rights.
In this way Arendt uses the refugee as a test case for examining human rights in isolation from civil rights.
Arendt's analysis draws on the refugee upheavals in the first half of the twentieth century along with her own experience as a refugee fleeing Nazi Germany.
She argued that as state governments began to emphasize national identity as a prerequisite for full legal status, the number of minority resident aliens increased along with the number of stateless persons whom no state was willing to recognize legally.
Arendt argued that repatriation failed to solve the refugee crisis because no government was willing to take them in and claim them as their own.
When refugees were forcibly deported to neighboring countries, such immigration was deemed illegal by the receiving country, and so failed to change the fundamental status of the migrants as stateless.
Attempts at naturalizing and assimilating refugees also had little success. This failure was primarily the result of resistance from both state governments and the majority of citizens, since both tended to see the refugees as undesirables who threatened their national identity.
Resistance to naturalization also came from the refugees themselves who resisted assimilation and attempted to maintain their own ethnic and national identities.
Instead of accepting some refugees with legal status, the state often responded by denaturalizing minorities who shared national or ethnic ties with stateless refugees.
Arendt argues that the consistent mistreatment of refugees, most of whom were placed in internment camps, is evidence against the existence of human rights.
If the notion of human rights as universal and inalienable is to be taken seriously, the rights must be realizable given the features of the modern liberal state.
One of the primary ways in which a nation exercises sovereignty is through control over national borders. State governments consistently grant their citizens free movement to traverse national borders.
In contrast, the movement of refugees is often restricted in the name of national interests. In one of her most quoted passages,  she puts forward the concept that human rights are little more than an abstraction:.
The conception of human rights based upon the assumed existence of a human being as such broke down at the very moment when those who professed to believe in it were for the first time confronted with people who had indeed lost all other qualities and specific relationships - except that they were still human.
The world found nothing sacred in the abstract nakedness of being human. Several authors have written biographies that focus on the relationship between Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger.
In addition to the relationships, the novel is a serious exploration of philosophical ideas, that centers on Arendt's last meeting with Heidegger in Freiburg in The scene is based on Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's description in Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World ,  but reaches back to their childhoods, and Heidegger's role in encouraging the relationship between the two women.
Arendt's life remains part of current culture and thought. The film, with Barbara Sukowa in the title role, depicted the controversy over Arendt's coverage of the Eichmann trial and subsequent book,  in which she was widely misunderstood as defending Eichmann and blaming Jewish leaders for the Holocaust.
Hannah Arendt is widely considered one of the most influential political philosophers of the twentieth century. The study of the life and work of Hannah Arendt, and of her political and philosophical theory is described as Arendtian.
In Germany, her contributions to understanding authoritarianism is recognised by the Hannah-Arendt-Institut für Totalitarismusforschung Hannah Arendt Institute for the Research on Totalitarianism in Dresden.
In Oldenburg , the Hannah Arendt Center at Carl von Ossietzky University was established in ,  and holds a large collection of her work Hannah Arendt Archiv ,  and administers the internet portal HannahArendt.
In a journal, Arendt Studies , was launched to publish articles related to the study of the life, work, and legacy of Hannah Arendt.
The rise of nativism , such as the election of Donald Trump in America,    and concerns regarding an increasingly authoritarian style of governance has led to a surge of interest in Arendt and her writings, including  radio broadcasts  and writers, including Jeremy Adelman  and Zoe Williams,  to revisit Arendt's ideas to seek the extent to which they inform our understanding of such movements,   which are being described as "Dark Times".
She begins her book with an extensive quote from The Origins of Totalitarianism : . The ideal subject of totalitarian rule is not the convinced Nazi or the convinced communist, but people for whom the distinction between fact and fiction i.
Kakutani and others believed that Arendt's words speak not just events of a previous century but apply equally to the contemporary cultural landscape  populated with fake news and lies.
She also draws on Arendt's essay "Lying in Politics" from Crises in the Republic  pointing to the lines:.
The historian knows how vulnerable is the whole texture of facts in which we spend our daily life; it is always in danger of being perforated by single lies or torn to shreds by the organized lying of groups, nations, or classes, or denied and distorted, often carefully covered up by reams of falsehoods or simply allowed to fall into oblivion.
Facts need testimony to be remembered and trustworthy witnesses to be established in order to find a secure dwelling place in the domain of human affairs .
Arendt drew attention to the critical role that propaganda plays in gaslighting populations, Kakutani observes, citing the passage:  .
In an ever-changing, incomprehensible world the masses had reached the point where they would, at the same time, believe everything and nothing, think that everything was possible and that nothing was true.
The totalitarian mass leaders based their propaganda on the correct psychological assumption that, under such conditions, one could make people believe the most fantastic statements one day, and trust that if the next day they were given irrefutable proof of their falsehood, they would take refuge in cynicism; instead of deserting the leaders who had lied to them, they would protest that they had known all along that the statement was a lie and would admire the leaders for their superior tactical cleverness .
But it is also relevant that Arendt took a broader perspective on history than merely totalitarianism in the early twentieth century, stating "the deliberate falsehood and the outright lie have been used as legitimate means to achieve political ends since the beginning of recorded history".
Arendt's teachings on obedience have also been linked to the controversial psychology experiments by Stanley Milgram , that implied that ordinary people can easily be induced to commit atrocities.
Arendt's theories on the political consequences of how nations deal with refugees has remained relevant and compelling. Arendt had observed first hand the displacement of large stateless and rightsless populations, treated not so much as people in need than as problems to solve, and in many cases, resist.
An example of this being gun violence in America and the resulting political inaction. In Search of the Last Agora , an illustrated documentary film by Lebanese director Rayyan Dabbous about Hannah Arendt's work The Human Condition , was released in to mark the book's 50th anniversary.
Screened at Bard College, the experimental film is described as finding "new meaning in the political theorist's conceptions of politics, technology and society in the s", particularly in her prediction of abuses of phenomena unknown in Arendt's time, including social media, intense globalization, and obsessive celebrity culture.
Hannah Arendt's life and work continue to be commemorated in many different ways, including plaques Gedenktafeln indicating places she has lived.
A number of public places and institutions bear her name,  including schools. Museums and foundations include her name.
Arendt Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal that examines the life, work, and legacy of Hannah Arendt. Crease , and Celso Lafer.
Articles published in this journal are covered in the international Hannah Arendt Bibliographie. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the surname, see Arendt surname. For the film, see Hannah Arendt film. German-American Jewish philosopher and political theorist.
Linden , Prussian Hanover , German Empire. German —37 Stateless —50 United States from Günther Stern m.
Heinrich Blücher m. Central concepts. Types of republics. Important thinkers. By country. Related topics.
Communitarianism Democracy Liberalism Monarchism. The Arendt Family. Beerwald-Arendt Family. Hufen-Oberlyzeum ca. Königin-Luise-Schule in Königsberg ca.
Early homes. Hannah Arendt's birthplace in Linden. Tiergartenstrasse, Königsberg s. Almae matres. Berlin University. Marburg University.
Freiburg University. Heidelberg University. Martin Heidegger. Arendt at Heidelberg — Main article: Love and Saint Augustine.
Amor mundi. Main article: The Origins of Totalitarianism. Main article: Rahel Varnhagen book. Main article: The Human Condition.
Main article: Between Past and Future. Main article: On Revolution. Main article: Crises of the Republic. Müdigkeit Main article: The Life of the Mind.
Main article: Eichmann in Jerusalem. Palazzo degli Uffici Finanziari, Bolzano. On the other hand, she also worked in the television screen where she first appeared in the television series named Nio med Jo in Besides, most recently, she worked in the Swedish Netflix series named Quicksand with a role of Maja Norberg.
Hanna Ardehn was born on 4 October in Sweden with a birth sign of Libra. She was raised in the Northen Suburbs of Stockholm, Sweden.
Further, she is a private person and prefers to keep the information regarding her early life and personal life within her self.
Who you talkin' to? Foto: saraech. The Netflix actress studied psychology at the Linkopings Universiteit. In addition, she is an active person on social media and uses social media platforms like Instagram, where she garnered over